A brief explanation of technical terms used in the analysis
An economic or innovative actor actor has a comparative advantage over others in an activity (e.g. an industry or research topic) if it can generate outputs more efficiently. In Arloesiadur, we proxy this using competitiveness indices which consider how strongly represented an area or sector is in a location compared to the UK average. If the representation is stronger than the UK average (the competitiveness index is bigger than 1), we assume that the location is competitive in it.
Is a measure of similarity between two non-zero vectors of an inner product space that measures the cosine of the angle between them.